An Introduction to Intercultural Communication. Cross cultural or intercultural communication is a part of the interaction of different people from different backgrounds and heritages. Hall is generally credited with eight contributions to our study of intercultural communication (Chen, G. and Starosta, W., 2000; Leeds-Hurwitz, W., 1990; McLean, S., 2005): Hall shows us that emphasis on a culture as a whole, and how it operates, may lead us to neglect individual differences. Prejudice involves a negative preconceived judgment or opinion that guides conduct or social behavior (McLean, S., 2005). As Allport illustrated for us, we often assume characteristics about groups with which we have little contact. Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's own cultural way of thinking is superior to all other cultures. It is essentially a self-concept shared by a group of people. First by making macro-changes in the ways in which the international community functions in favour of the recognition of difference. Even with all the research you're going to do and the questions … The first is the peace imperative. 10+ Intercultural Communication Examples in PDF | DOC Culture is collectively the values, beliefs, and practices built through the communication of what defines its identity. Examples of Intercultural Communication. 18.2 Intercultural Communication, Prejudice, and Ethnocentrism Learning Objectives. • Stereotype can have a negative effect when people use them to interpret behavior. Start studying Intercultural Communications Quizzes 1-6 (except 4). Look back at the third of the Note 18.1 “Introductory Exercises” for this chapter and examine the terms you used to describe a culture with which you are unfamiliar. Potential solutions to the above dilemma could be searched for in at least two ways. New York, NY: Doubleday. Be open to new ideas and experiences, and start investigating. The nature of prejudice. Not all cultures think about time in the North American linear fashion. This will prevent any embarrassing situations that can lead to … 3. … Accept that you'll commit errors. Quite the contrary; Hall asserts that you can, in fact, learn something without understanding everything, and given the dynamic nature of communication and culture, who is to say that your lessons will not serve you well? Were the terms flattering or pejorative? Will the candidates’ dress, age, or gender influence your opinion of them? Chinese and indigenous Moslem. Stereotypes can be defined as a generalization about a group of people that oversimplifies their culture (Rogers, E. and Steinfatt, T., 1999). (Velasco, 2013), and, as stated Prejudice is a broad social phenomenon and area of research, complicated by the fact that intolerance exists in internal cognitions but is manifest in symbol usage (verbal, nonverbal, mediated), law and policy, and social and organizational practice. Regardless of how you answered, you proved Allport’s main point. Communicating across civilizations carries countless challenges, and bookmans have studied the procedure for decennaries. In intercultural research, the influence of stereotypes on people’s behaviors in communication is a very important issue to take into account. Intercultural communication is when communication takes place between individuals from diverse cultures from all around the world. Language difference makes international business companies difficult to adjust to local environment and culture. Negative stereotypes, prejudice and behaviours against the outgroup would obstruct effective intercultural communications from taking place. Racism for Effective Intercultural Communication, and provided an brief description of an updated version of a classic exercise in intercultural communication training— one I have successfully employed in classrooms, businesses, organizations, and counseling sessions. For instance, talking about Indian people in Arabic countries, it can be affirmed that Indians do get less salary than other nationalities. Allport, G. (1958). While his view makes the study of intercultural communication far more complex, it also brings a healthy dose of reality to the discussion. Not rarely, are stereotypes too simple or general, and also exaggerated, and reduced to, sometimes, naive statements like “Blonds are…”, “Blacks are….”, “Women should not….”, etc. 2004. As an example, imagine two people walking into a room for a job interview. The basics of interpersonal communication. Will their race or ethnicity be a conscious or subconscious factor in your thinking process? Hall, E. (1966). You probably don't think of yourself as a racist. Chen, G., & Starosta, W. (2000). Intercultural communication is both cultural and individual, or idiosyncratic. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. qxd 6/21/03 5:54 PM Page 75 ETHNOCENTRISM Definition The third barrier to effective intercultural communication is ethnocentrism, or negatively judging aspects of another culture by the standards of one’s own culture. Intercultural communication. People who treat other with prejudice often make assumptions, or take preconceived ideas for granted without question, about the group or communities. This lesson has discussed our perceptions of others, ethnocentrism, stereotypes, prejudice, and racism. The American anthropologist Edward T. Hall is often cited as a pioneer in the field of intercultural communication (Chen, G. and Starosta, W., 2000). The reason we don't think we're racist is because we think only of overt bias, but we often forget about the more subtle aspects of prejudice. When we resort to the mental shortcut of a stereotype, we lose these unique differences. Individuals who display hostile prejudice often believe that the group has been given more than sufficient opportunities to improve themselves and simply cannot or will not because of their own innate limitations. One such example is the research of Dean Barnlund( 1975). He then traveled the globe during World War II and later served as a U.S. State Department official. Describe strategies to understand intercultural communication, prejudice, and ethnocentrism. The people you interact with may not be representative of the culture as a whole, but that is not to say that what you learn lacks validity. Allport’s work would indicate that those factors and more will make you likely to use stereotypes to guide your expectations of them and your subsequent interactions with them. For example, a young woman form Nigeria met another woman from Haiti. Intercultural communication is a discipline that studies communication across different cultures and social groups, or how culture affects communication.It describes the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals from different religious, social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds. An important result of research shows that 1). Prejudice is a negative attitude and feeling toward an individual based solely on one’s membership in a particular social group, such as gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, social class, religion, sexual orientation, profession, and many more (Allport, 1954; Brown, 2010). Under such circumstances, potential communication problems could result in misunderstandings (Neuliep & McCroskey, 1997) and reduced levels of intercultural-willingness-to-communicate (Lin & Rancer, 2003). 2 9 References E. Jandt, Fred. any resulting prejudice) are perpetuated within a given society. 27. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 76, 268–281. This paper aims to illustrate stereotypes from the aspects of their social and psychological perspectives, great influence on people’s communication, the problems they may cause, and some solutions. Leeds-Hurwitz, W. (1990). • Prejudice can have very serious effects, for it can lead to discrimination and hate crimes. The contexts discussed—humor, news, entertaining film—comprise some notable examples of how prejudiced communication is infused into daily life. Intercultural communications can show complex obstructions that cover the full communicating spectrum, but six of import unwritten and gestural factors can do a important difference when pass oning with persons from another civilization. nothing else but impede intercultural communication! intercultural communication by reinforcing those negative stereotypes. Later, however, they became good friends and enjoyed each other’s company. This denies cultural, racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and many other valuable, insightful differences. Born in 1914, Hall spent much of his early adulthood in the multicultural setting of the American Southwest, where Native Americans, Spanish-speakers, and descendants of pioneers came together from diverse cultural perspectives. Racism can be found in actions, behaviors and language both intentional and unintentional. First, we can approach others who are different with a clean slate. Start studying Intercultural Communication. By focusing on interactions rather than cultures as separate from individuals, he asked us to evaluate the many cultures we ourselves belong to or are influenced by as well as those with whom we interact. Cultural-Individual Dialectic. Ðà. Ethnocentric tendencies, stereotyping, and assumptions of similarity can make it difficult to learn about cultural differences. Describe strategies to understand intercultural communication, prejudice, and ethnocentrism. Communication barriers including ethnocentrism, stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination, play major roles in understanding another culture. Intercultural Communication 761392 Acc 770216 Log Prejudice ... Racism leads to discrimination, of which, there are countless terrible examples throughout history. Rogers, E., & Steinfatt, T. (1999). The American psychologist Gordon Allport explored how, when, and why we formulate or use stereotypes to characterize distinct groups. There are six imperatives for intercultural communication. Stereotypes and Prejudice as Barriers 28. Prejudice can be defined as an unreasonable dislike and distrust of people who are different from you in some way, especially because of their race, sex, religion, etc. Intercultural communication can be seen as complex due to different cultures not encoding and decoding messages the same. Examples of prejudiced communication can be seen in name calling that relates to cultural or religious attire or negative adjectives placed before a group name. Consider a study abroad experience if that is an option for you, or learn from a classmate who comes from a foreign country or an unfamiliar culture. In the U.S., … Very few of us do. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. When stereotype threat affects communication in the work place or classroom, there are simple practices that can be used to remedy the situation. Did they reflect respect for the culture or did they make unfavorable value judgments? Effective communication is a skill that few people posses and even fewer people can get their point across when there is a cross cultural barrier. Foundations of intercultural communication. When we do not have enough contact with people or their cultures to understand them well, we tend to resort to stereotypes (Allport, G., 1958). We can learn to reduce our stereotypes, prejudices and racism by becoming more mindful and aware of our thoughts. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. There are 6 imperatives, which are important to understand intercultural communication. Barriers to Intercultural Communication 75 04-Jandt_Text. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press. His results may not surprise you. The hidden dimension. As Hall notes, experience has value. An example of prejudice is having a negative attitude toward people who are not born in the United States. If the trust is compromised, the flow of communication will be obstructed. In intercultural communication and the indigenous Moslem ethnic Chinese in Medan still marked the elements of stereotypes and prejudice, giving rise to social distance and become an obstacle to the harmonization of relations native Moslem and ethnic Chinese in Medan. You are tasked to interview both, and having read the previous section, you know that Allport rings true when he says we rely on stereotypes when encountering people or cultures with which we have had little contact. Where culture had once been viewed by anthropologists as a single, distinct way of living, Hall saw how the perspective of the individual influences interaction. Intercultural Relationship, Prejudice and Ethnocentrism in a Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC): A Time-Series Experiment Hasrina Mustafa, Ph.D. (Corresponding author) School of Communication, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia Tel: 60-19-322-8232 E-mail: hasrina@usm.my Hamidah A. Hamid Prejudiceis making assumptions (pre-judgments) about the people or things around us. Discourage Racism and Discrimination. The exercise is called the E.A.D. It's important to define that term here because it will help us understand how we can all harbor some forms of racism that most of us are unaware of. Given their potential impact on human behavior, the investigation of ste-reotypes has occupied a central position in intercultural communication research. Lastly, the best way to promote healthy intercultural communication is to discourage racism and discrimination by strongly advocating a non-racist policy. Appreciations with reference to certain nationalities are also met with, especially in small Free Example of Intercultural Communication Essay. Your experiences will allow you to learn about another culture and yourself, and help you to avoid prejudice. §];×*i•àBV2smJ‘ÈÊÙº*)Ëóè+Ë:)²°î¯ëŒþVoހ Iæd0͓bÄÅl¶nÔ£ºó²]$ùhFW³uëDgö+óD¨2Gí,Ö/PðôP B® If you do not know a culture, you should consider learning more about it firsthand if possible. Th… Value of Time. The American anthropologist Edward T. Hall is often cited as a pioneer in the field of intercultural communication (Chen, G. and Starosta, W., 2000). There have been a number of studies in the field of intercultural communication with a number of experts studying ways different people from different backgrounds interact with each other and how they conduct their day to day activities. Racism, anti-racism and intercultural dialogue May 2017 In book: Interculturalism at the crossroads: comparative perspectives on concepts, policies and practices (pp.257-276) Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Improving our intercultural flexibility. New York, NY: Doubleday. Second with respect to the An example of this would be the prevalent stereotype that women are not good at math and science, which in turn may cause women to internalise such All three examples illustrate how stereotypic information may be used to ease comprehension: Stereotypic information helps people get the joke or understand the message in a limited amount of time. Individuals may hold beliefs or practice customs that do not follow their own cultural norm. These practices focus on minimizing negative subtext and allowing an open flow of information between participants. For instance, Coca-Cola Company once tried to find a phonetic equivalent of their brand to be used in China and thought of using KeKou-KeLa. communication gap can be much greater. CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Such negative stereotyping can become a “self-fulfilling prophecy” for those who are stereotyped and hence place them at risk. An example of hostile prejudice is regarding an entire group of people as lazy, stupid, prone to crime or driven by violence. At first, they were very skeptical of each other because we spoke different languages. Notes in the history of intercultural communication: The foreign service institute and the mandate for intercultral training. McLean, S. (2005). 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