Law #195. The Hammurabi Code encapsulates 282 legal codes that were used to basically govern the people of ancient Babylon during King Hammurabi’s reign. [21], While the Code of Hammurabi was trying to achieve equality, biases still existed against those categorized in the lower end of the social spectrum and some of the punishments and justice could be gruesome. Other provisions set the terms of a transaction, the liability of a builder for a house that collapses, or property that is damaged while left in the care of another. How Hammurabi's Code actually reflects life in Old Babylonia will be the subject of the following activities. Hammurabi’s Code had its set of punishments (mostly harsh punishments) to ward of potential breakers of the law. For example, a member from the upper class was required to pay 10 shekels (the silver coin used in ancient Babylon) to a doctor for the healing of a bad wound. The codes have served as … His family roots can be traced to a group of nomadic people called the Amorites. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}48°51′40″N 2°20′11″E / 48.86111°N 2.33639°E / 48.86111; 2.33639, The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology). For example, he took full advantage of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, building a number of irrigation canals. One of the best surviving examples of the code is written on the "diorite stele". At the time of his reign, his dominion spanned large parts of central Mesopotamia (a region in present day Iraq). The Code of Hammurabi was one of the only sets of laws in the ancient Near East and also one of the first forms of law. 2050 BC), the Codex of Eshnunna (ca. Hammurabi and his empire worshiped a host of deities, including Marduk, ancient Babylon’s patron god. [16], The Code of Hammurabi is the longest surviving text from the Old Babylonian period. The laws were strict and absolute. The significance of the Hammurabi Code lied in its ability to stop the strong in the society from preying on or oppressing the weak. The Code consisted of 282 laws, with punishments that varied based on social status (slaves, free men, and property owners). It consists of 282 laws, most concerning punishment. Vol. I will share what I learn after studying more. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. It shows Hammurabi receiving the codes from the Babylonian god of justice and truth, Shamash. Law #195 says "If a son has struck his father, his hands shall be cut off." Works Cited. Meaning of the Hammurabi Code. It helped proliferate the lex talionis doctrine. He also brought the Kingdom of Assyria under his control by deposing King Ishme-Dagan I and replacing him with Mut-Ashkur. How did Hammurabi's code show an advance business society--regulated the protection of property and business contracts. Although, the codes and the underpinning principles were quite novel and just for its era, judgments were passed according to the guilty party’s status in the society. [9], It was taken as plunder by the Elamite king Shutruk-Nahhunte in the 12th century BC and was taken to Susa in Elam (located in the present-day Khuzestan Province of Iran), where it was no longer available to the Babylonian people. The doctrine simply translates into “an eye for an eye”. In the hypothetical speech below, Hammurabi invokes some of the Babylonian gods (Anu Bel, Shamash), as he does in his Code. (Law #104). He was glorified as a ruler who spread peace, justice and civilization. The Code of Hammurabi was a comprehensive set of laws, considered by many scholars to be the oldest laws established; they were handed down four thousand years ago by King Hammurabi of Babylon. 2. However, its copying in subsequent generations indicates that it was used as a model of legal and judicial reasoning. to bring justice to widows and orphans. Hammurabi’s Code Primary Source Analysis teaches students about the culture of Babylon and it’s law code justice system through primary source document analysis. "Hammurabi is a ruler, who is as a father to his subjects, who holds the words of Mardukin reverence, who has achieved conquest for Mardukover the north and south, who rejoices the heart of Marduk, his lord, who has bestowed benefits for ever and ever on his subjects, and has established order in the land." Law #195. The purpose of the Code of Hammurabi was to use political power to create common bonds among the diverse people of the society. King Hammurabi ruled Babylon, located along the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, from 1792–1750 BCE. Written in the dominant language at the time, the Akkadian language, the code provided a legal framework for the exchange of goods and services in the ancient city-state of Babylon. widows, orphans and children) in the society. [25][26], In July 2010, archaeologists reported that a fragmentary Akkadian cuneiform tablet was discovered at Tel Hazor, Israel, containing a c. 1700 BC text that was said to be partly parallel to portions of the Hammurabi code. The purpose of the Legal Code of Hammurabi was to use political power to create common bonds among the diverse people of the society. "[29], Hammurabi had many other punishments, as well. The purpose of the Code of Hammurabi was to use political power to create common bonds among the diverse people of the society. Public Legal Education Association of Saskatchewan. Hammurabi's code was the first written legal code and was issued by the king Hammurabi. The United States Constitution is about 25% the same as the Code of Hammurabi. The Codes of Hammurabi . This prevented people from acting arbitrary. The purpose was for Hammurabi (sometimes written "Hammurapi") to set down a reasonable and unchanging set of laws that addressed common problems in his kingdom… Nearly half of the code deals with matters of contract, establishing the wages to be paid to an ox driver or a surgeon for example. If a son strikes his father, his hands shall be hewn off. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Louvre Museum, Paris. (2016), This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 00:47. It greatly influenced a total dependence on the power of their one ruler, and it was a conscious effort to exalt the king as the source, the only source, of The Prologue of the Code of Hammurabi (the first 305 inscribed squares on the stele) is on such a tablet, also at the Louvre (Inv #AO 10237). The city-state of Babylon at its peak was one of the most advanced, politically and socially, in the world. Hammurabi’s Code about divorce and women’s rights. The Code issues justice following the three classes of Babylonian society: property owners, freed men, and slaves. A very important point worth noting about the Hammurabi Code is the “lex talionis” doctrine (the “Law of Retaliation”). Over the years, however, a few clay pots and slabs from Hammurabi’s era have been discovered in the Persian region. If a person is proven to have stolen an ox, then he/she is slapped with a punishment of 30 times the value of the stolen ox. [13] The code of laws was arranged in orderly groups, so that all who read the laws would know what was required of them. The code made sure that everyone received justice, offering protection to the most vulnerable people (i.e. He used death as a penalty and therefore helped to restore peace in his kingdom. He did what no other previous Babylonian king had done before. LAW # 6. Known today as the Code of Hammurabi, the 282 laws are one of the earliest and more complete written legal codes from ancient times. It consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" (lex talionis)[1] as graded based on social stratification depending on social status and gender, of slave versus free, man versus woman.[2]. Code of Hammurabi-Inscribed on a seven-foot stele (stone slab or pillar), enshrined in the temple of Marduk (national god of the Babylonians)-The Code is now considered a summary of a body of long-standing Sumerian laws-Laws about prices, wages, payment of … did the law code apply equally to all. Interesting Facts about the Code of Hammurabi. Its purpose is to stimulate student thinking about the reasons behind Hammurabi's Code. As for the slave, his/her bill was in the region of 2 silver shekels. Hammurabi’s laws—not a law code in the modern sense—must also be considered as an expression of his concern to be a just ruler—an ideal pursued by Mesopotamian kings at all times. Owing to its chemical properties, diorite does not easily lend itself to carving. Hammurabi also established a set of laws that is today called the Code of Hammurabi. The language the Babylonians spoke was Akkadian. Enforcement of the codes was done in a fair and just manner. [12], The Code of Hammurabi was one of the only sets of laws in the ancient Near East and also one of the first forms of law. 1780 BC (short chronology), is one of the earliest extant sets of laws and one of the best preserved examples of this type of document from ancient Mesopotamia.Still earlier collections of laws include the codex of Ur-Nammu, king of Ur (ca. King Hammurabi was the Sixth king from the First Babylonian Dynasty (i.e. All the codes were proclaimed using the if-then format. Required fields are marked *. [22], Various copies of portions of the Code of Hammurabi have been found on baked clay tablets, some possibly older than the celebrated basalt stele now in the Louvre. The codes were written (chiseled) into the slab using cuneiform writing, one of the earliest forms of writings in human history. [17] The code has been seen as an early example of a fundamental law, regulating a government – i.e., a primitive constitution. Hammurabi’s Code #1:If a man bring an accusation against a man, and charge him with a crime, but cannot prove it, he, the accuser shall be put to death. Each law is written in two parts: A specific situation or case is outlined, then a corresponding decision is given.[28]. Thus the code established the innocent-until-proven-guilty principle (presumption of innocence). The code of laws was arranged in orderly groups, so that all who read the laws would know what was required of them. These codes originate from similar cultures i… Worldhistoryedu is not responsible for the content of external sites. The codes encompassed issues from a wide range of areas in the society, from family, business, and administrative law. "[8] The laws were arranged in 44 columns and 28 paragraphs; some follow along the rules of "an eye for an eye". King, Hammurabi's Code of Laws, Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, Theological University of the Reformed Churches, University Museum at the University of Pennsylvania, Law Code Stele of King Hammurabi, 1792–1750 BC, "The Code of Hammurabi: Translated by L.W. If a man damages the eye of another man, then the culprit shall have his eye destroyed. Hammurabi was a Babylonian king who ruled from 1792 to 1750 B.C. The Hazor law code fragments are currently being prepared for publication by a team from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. His reign saw the Babylonians engulf several kingdoms along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Capital crimes, meanwhile, were often met with their own unique and grisly death penalties. If one destroy the eye of a man's slave or break a bone of a man's slave he shall pay one-half his price. He then forced the Assyrians to pay yearly tributes to the city of Babylon. Hammurabi’s law of retribution was perhaps one of the reasons the city of Babylon flourished for quite some time. These laws established stability and kept the society flourishing. had such lenient punishments. [15] These codes originate from similar cultures in a relatively small geographical area, and they have passages that resemble each other. He expanded Babylon and united the southern Mesopotamia. Sitemap. Code of Hammurabi stele. It greatly influenced a total dependence on the power of their one ruler, and it was a conscious effort to exalt the king as the source of earthly powers. Hammurabi’s Codes were a comprehensive set of 282 legal codes introduced by an 18th century BCE Babylonian king Hammurabi (reign – 1792 to 1750 BCE) in order to regulate trade, business transactions, as well as other social relationships in the ancient city-state of Babylon. The code itself tells archeologists a lot about the lives of the people of Babylon. Hammurabi was famous not only for his military conquests but also for establishing the sets of judgment, a symbol of civilisation in Mesopotamia. I will have much more reading to do. It was usual and customary for different Ancient Near Eastern civilizations to establish their own sets of law codes, and many of them are quite similar in content. No Robert Mugabe or Muamar Gaddafi ....western propaganda....those guys fought for... What about Siad Bare of Somalia ??? Early estimates pegged the number of missing laws at 34, however the exact number is still not determined and only 30 have been discovered so far. A slip of the knife can lead to alarming penalties - though much reduced if the patient is a slave. Hammurabi’s Laws in so many ways curbed the excesses of the wronged person in terms of retribution. Law #3. The code has much to say on medical matters, listing in particular the Rewards and penalties for a doctor undertaking surgery with his bronze operating knife. Home; Home. 1. Some gaps in the list of benefits bestowed on cities recently annexed by Hammurabi may imply that it is older than the famous stele (currently dated to the early 18th century BC). King", "8 Things You May Not Know About Hammurabi's Code", The Laws of Hammurapi, Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative, The Code of Hammurabi Translated by L. W. 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