You can get your custom paper from According to Utilitarianism, euthanasia can be morally justified, whereas according to Kantianism, euthanasia is not morally justifiable; but I will argue that neither position provides an adequate resolution to the issue, due to the significant flaws that are inherent in … Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia is a controversial topic that brings up many ethical issues and the rights of the patients the physicians serve. 451). And if one were to make an exception in this case, what would then prevent us from making exceptions in other cases? Euthanasia: Kantianism vs Utilitarianism Essay Sample The deliberate act of ending another’s life, given his or her consent, is formally referred to as euthanasia. Thus, under the utilitarian system, keeping the person alive in this scenario would have been the morally justified act, whereas killing the person would not have been. The reason being that the people who care for the person are both happy and unhappy regardless of whether the person is dead or alive, but the person will only be happy if he/she is dead. Essay, Ask Writer For So, if a person acts out of good intentions, but does not produce beneficial results, then his action does not qualify as a moral action. Essentially, the categorical imperative states that your actions must not result in a practical contradiction, which can be determined by nationalizing all other people performing the same act. Euthanasia denotes any action that terminates the life of an individual in intense and debilitating medical state. It is Teleological and focused on maximizing utility, as opposed to the Deontological root of a Kantian philosophy. Therefore in this paper I would discuss voluntary active euthanasia from Kantian and utilitarian’s perspective. Euthanasia: Kantianism vs Utilitarianism Essay Sample The deliberate act of ending another’s life, given his or her consent, is formally referred to as euthanasia. The deliberate act of ending another's life, given his or her consent, is formally referred to as euthanasia. Aside from the cultural and religious aspects on dying, Utilitarianism and Kantian Ethics discuss how we, as humans, should pursue our lives. Hedonistic Utilitarianism An action is god when it maximizes the amount of pleasure for most people, consequences in a minimum amount of pain. Taking the categorical imperative in terms of being able to act In ways that can, without contradiction, become a universal law, if one were to universalism killing another person – which is the fundamental act in euthanasia – this would result in a practical contradiction. Philosophy Support Materials: Moral Philosophy – Student Activities (H and Int 2) 3 NOTE TO TUTORS These support materials have been designed to support the teaching of the Keywords Ethics, Euthanasia, demise, Uncertainty, ethical issues. it would back up the act of mercy killing as a morally sound action.Unlike Utilitarianism nevertheless. Kantianism states that moralss is a strictly a priori subject. He followed two 'laws' when deciding what to do in a moral dilemma. Also contrary to Utilitarianism, Kantian asserts that the moral worth of an action should be judged on its motive and the action itself, and not on its consequences. Kantians believe “human life is valuable because humans are the bearers of rational life” (O’Neill 414). Therefore, an action that slightly increases your own pleasure, but in turn, dramatically decreases the pleasure of other, according to Utilitarianism is not moral action. A utilitarian argument against euthanasia. 451). According to Utilitarianism, euthanasia can be morally justified, whereas according to Kantian, euthanasia is not morally justifiable; but will argue that neither position provides an adage Tate resolution to the issue, due to the significant flaws that are inherent in … Voluntary euthanasia is justifiable when the action leads to the happiness of the individual and society. There are a variety of positions, based on the numerous ethical theories that have been developed, that one can take in order to resolve the issue of euthanasia; but the positions I will be looking at in particular, are the positions based on John Stuart Mill's 'Utilitarianism' ethical theory, and Immanuel Kant's 'Categorical Imperative' ethical theory. This can be illustrated in the most common case of euthanasia, where the person who is willing to die suffers from an illness that causes great pain, and will result in his or her demise in the not-so-distant future. Euthanasia: Kantianism vs Utilitarianism. Kantianism and utilitarianism have different ways for determining whether an act we do is right or wrong. Utilitarianism vs. Kantianism According to Thiroux and Krasemann (2012), utilitarianism is, “a normative ethical theory originally established by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that advocates brining about good consequences or happiness to all concerned” (pp. A probable Kantian attitude towards euthanasia, apart from the analogy with suicide, can be derived from Kant’s vie ws on deliberate murder and punishment, i.e. I am preparing for an in-class debate to discuss the morals of the Euthanasia. Euthanasia is seen by some as killing, while others see it as removing a person from immense amounts of pain. Euthanasia and Kantian Ethics Immanuel Kant was a philosopher who believed in a particular way of approaching ethics. download word file, 6 pages, 4.3. Euthanasia denotes any action that terminates the life of an individual in intense and debilitating medical state. Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. Euthanasia related to Kantianism and Utilitarianism. Euthanasia: Kantianism vs Utilitarianism . Logistics management - Evaluate the logistics operations carried out within the company highlighting the problems encountered. Finally, Utilitarianism asserts that an action is good only if it promotes the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people. Though it is indeed reasonable that deliberately killing another for the sake of harming them is an immoral act, in euthanasia, a person is killed by another only by their own consent, and for the most part, with a good motive. Voluntary euthanasia is justifiable when the action leads to the happiness of the individual and society. The deliberate act of ending another's life, given his or her consent, is formally referred to as euthanasia. Kantianism and utilitarianism have different ways for determining whether an act we do is right or wrong. A KANTIAN APPROACH TO EUTHANASIA ABSTRACT The paper addresses the issues of euthanasia and thoroughly analyses Kantian response to the practice in question. Unlike Utilitarianism however, Kantian states that ethics is a purely a priori discipline, thus, independent of experience, and that ethical rules can only be found through pure reason. Therefore, since euthanasia does not meet the moral standards set out by Kantian, it would not support the act of euthanasia as a morally sound action. Let us look at the issue of euthanasia being admissible in a utilitarian framework. To act out of a ‘good will’, one must act in accordance with a categorical imperative. However, as I stated in my thesis, I believe that Utilitarianism, and Kantian do not provide an adequate resolution to the issue of euthanasia, because of he significant flaws in their reasoning. "You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy", Don't use plagiarized sources. The deliberate act of ending another's life, given his or her consent, is formally referred to as euthanasia… A KANTIAN APPROACH TO EUTHANASIA ABSTRACT The paper addresses the issues of euthanasia and thoroughly analyses Kantian response to the practice in question. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. the death penalty. So, in applying the utilitarian principle to this case, the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people occurs when the person is dead. This simply means that the end justifies means. Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/euthanasia-kantianism-vs-utilitarianism-essay/, This is just a sample. In case you can’t find a sample example, our professional writers are ready to help you with writing Utilitarianism pdf and kantianism. Finally, the categorical imperative is an unconditional ought, which means that an action must be performed solely out of duty to the categorical imperative, without any ulterior motive, in order for it to be a moral action. Euthanasia is seen as a controversial and moral issue because of the different viewpoints. It irrational sa y that pleasure is all that matters and then to act with other things in mind as w ell. Also, if one were to formulate the categorical imperative in terms of treating others (including oneself) as ends rather than means, euthanasia would violate the categorical imperative, in that the person is treated as a means by killing himself, to reach the end goal of eliminating the pain. Nonetheless, Kant would consider it the wrong choice for the same reasons as those relating to an actively perpetrated suicide. 451). If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. With Kantian, the significant flaw in their position lies in the fact that they make an absolute, immutable statement – do not murder – without any consideration for the context in which murder takes place. To effectively make these Euthanasia is often considered a moral issue. Voluntary euthanasia is defined as “the practice of ending a … By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure” (Mill, 7). A utilitarian perspective is the foil to a Kantian viewpoint, as intent has no bearing on a decision, while the net outcome is the determining factor for whether something is right or wrong. This fundamental idea then forms the basis for Utilitarianism’s Greatest Happiness Principle which states, “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. To illustrate, if I were to make a promise with no intentions of keeping it, and I imagine all other people doing the same, then very idea of a promise would cease to have meaning, and thus, my action would give rise to a practical contradiction, and consequently, be immoral. Thus, for these reasons, the positions of Utilitarianism and Kantian on euthanasia are inadequate in resolving the issue of euthanasia, and euthanasia still remains as a significant social-ethical problem in our contemporary society. Utilitarianism vs. Kantianism According to Thiroux and Krasemann (2012), utilitarianism is, “a normative ethical theory originally established by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that advocates brining about good consequences or happiness to all concerned” (pp. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy, The input space is limited by 250 symbols. concept of autonomy in the euthanasia debate and 2) the application of Kantian autonomy to the euthanasia debate is only appropriate in making an argument that advanced directives, made by a present rational self for a future arational self, can legitimately specify conditions under which euthanasia should occur. Utilitarianism vs. Kantianism Ethics can be defined as "the conscious reflection on our moral beliefs with the aim of improving, extending or refining those beliefs in some way." Downloaded 202 times. How is racism depicted in 'Life for a Life' by Alan Paton. Essays: Euthanasia: Kantianism vs Utilitarianism. • Utilitarianism says that an act is justified if maximum numbers of people are deriving happiness out of … I'm in Canada and the debate has been started again by the government. Utilitarianism is an ethical approach that attempts to maximise Voluntary euthanasia is defined as “the practice of ending a … This paper will find out what utilitarian and deontological positions would say about euthanasia. Deliberately killing another person is presumed by most rational people as a fundamental evil act. Thus, with regard to euthanasia, Kantian would reject the act of euthanasia s a morally good action based on their reasoning that an action is good only if it acts in accordance with a categorical imperative. I'm in Canada and the debate has been started again by the government. Utilitarianism means that the outcome of our actions determines whether or not what we have done is good. According to Kant, we should look at our maxims, or intentions, of the particular action. All you need to do is fill out a short form and submit an order. Unlike Utilitarianism however, Kantianism states that ethics is a purely a priori discipline, thus, independent of experience, and that ethical rules can only be … We have to prepare both sides. With Utilitarianism, the significant flaw in their position lies in the fact that it is built on the false assumption that the consequences of actions can be predicted, when in actuality they cannot. Euthanasia and Utilitarianism The principle of Utilitarianism was invented by Jeremy Bentham. That practical contradiction being if everyone were to kill one another, then there would be no people left in this world, and as a consequence, the very idea of murder would lose its meaning. A probable Kantian attitude towards euthanasia, apart from the analogy with suicide, can be derived from Kant’s vie ws on deliberate murder and punishment, i.e. (Dodds, Lecture 2) Kantian moral theory and Utilitarianism are two theories that attempt to answer the ethical nature of human beings. In reference to Kant’s views on many related issues, such as murder, suicide, autonomy, rationality, This paper will first discuss the principles of utilitarianism through Bentham Utilitarianism says that what defines right or wrong is the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people by maximizing benefits or at least reducing suffering. Immanuel Kant focuses on actions and labels an action morally right if … This practice with the terminally ill is known as euthanasia. Two most famous ethicists are John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) and Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). Mill is one of the philosophers who described the moral theory of utilitarianism, an ethical view that can help an individual in making decisions. But euthanasia, in essence, is murder, and this might lead one to ask whether there can ever be an exception to murder? I am preparing for an in-class debate to discuss the morals of the Euthanasia. For example, I can use utilitarianism to oppose euthanasia. Philosophy Support Materials: Moral Philosophy – Student Activities (H and Int 2) 2. Act that your principle of action might safely be made a law for the whole world.”As somebody who believes in god and with Kant’s ideas, I agree with this quote because Kantian ethics are usually spoken of in terms of duty and doing the right thing, Kant himself thought that … This can be illustrated in the most common case of euthanasia, where the person who is ailing to die suffers from an illness that causes great pain, and will result in his or her demise in the not-so-distant future. According to Kant, we should look at our maxims, or intentions, of the particular action. First let us define voluntary euthanasia. (2018, Feb 01). Kantianism and Utilitarianism Euthanasia is one of the issues that different philosophers have discussed in length. A utilitarian perspective is the foil to a Kantian viewpoint, as intent has no bearing on a decision, while the net outcome is the determining factor for … In additions I would be discussing arguments for and against voluntary active euthanasia. In this case, killing the person Would seem to be the most humane and reasonable thing to do, whereas keeping the person alive would be akin to torture; which is also presumed to be a fundamental evil act. Utilitarianism vs. Kantianism According to Thiroux and Krasemann (2012), utilitarianism is, “a normative ethical theory originally established by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that advocates brining about good consequences or happiness to all concerned” (pp. Euthanasia through utilitarianism ; Is Euthanasia right or wrong? Get Your Custom Essay on, By clicking “Write my paper”, you agree to our, By clicking Send Me The Sample you agree on the, The doctrine of utilitarianism articulated by jeremy bentham argued that governments should, Compare And Contrast Utilitarianism With Kant MID TERM, https://graduateway.com/euthanasia-kantianism-vs-utilitarianism-essay/, Get your custom Essay by epsilon, April 2004 . Two most famous ethicists are John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) and Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). Therefore, since euthanasia meets the moral standards set by Utilitarianism, it would support the act of euthanasia as a morally sound action. According to Utilitarianism, euthanasia can be morally justified, whereas according to Kantian, euthanasia is not morally justifiable; but will argue that neither position provides an adage Tate resolution to the issue, due to the significant flaws that are inherent in the reasoning that led to their particular positions. Kantian vs. Utilitarian Ethics of Euthanasia... Euthanasia is often considered a moral issue. Kant’s theory contains several ethical principles Euthanasia: Kantianism vs Utilitarianism Essay Sample The deliberate act of ending another’s life, given his or her consent, is formally referred to as euthanasia. Bentham's theory states that when faced with an ethical dilemma, you should decide what is morally right or wrong depending on what has the best consequences for the maximum amount of people. Initially, fast reading without taking notes and underlines should be done. Help, Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay, Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself, Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay, Do not copy and paste free to download essays. • Utilitarianism and Euthanasia • Kantian Ethics and Euthanasia. Kantianism vs Utilitarianism • Attitude towards what is right or wrong is what constitutes the basic difference between utilitarianism and Kantianism. your own paper. We can argue for or against, but it has to relate to our moral philosophy. According to Kant there is only one categorical imperative, which is to “act only on that maxim in which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal (Kant, 528); and can also be formulated as “act in such a way tattoo always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as means, but always at the same time as an end” (Kant, 532). Thus, in the context of the case mentioned in the introduction, the Utilitarian position on euthanasia would go something as follows: With respect to the individual who is willing to die, he/she would simply be happiest dead, and unhappiest alive. Based on these ideas, Kantian propose that an action is good only if it performed out a ‘good will’; which is the only thing that is good, in and of itself. Utilitarianism vs. Kantianism According to Thiroux and Krasemann (2012), utilitarianism is, “a normative ethical theory originally established by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that advocates brining about good consequences or happiness to all concerned” (pp. There is hardly any similarity between utilitarianism and Kantianism. However, when that person gives his or her consent to do so, this seems to give rise to an exceptional case. • Attitude towards what is right or wrong is what constitutes the basic difference between utilitarianism and Kantianism. classical utilitarians vs. Utilitarianism, Kantian Ethics, Natural Rights Theories, and Religious Ethics A “utilitarian” argument, in the strict sense, is one what alleges that we ought to do something because it will produce more total happiness than doing anything else would. Utilitarianism states that what makes an action right is that it produces the greatest amount of happiness (not just your happiness, but others as well). According to Utilitarianism, euthanasia can be morally justified, whereas according to Kantianism, euthanasia is not morally justifiable; but I will argue that neither position provides an adequate resolution to the issue, due to the significant flaws that are inherent in … With respect to the people who care for the individual, they loud be happy that he/she is alive, but unhappy at the same time because he/she is in great pain; or if the individual underwent euthanasia, happy because he/she is no longer in pain, but unhappy because he/she is dead. independent of experience. 4 UTILITARIAN ETHICS Bedau (1983) tells us that Kantian ethics contrast the idea of utilitarianism, which proposes that all situations demand a certain degree of pragmatism with respect to behavior. Therefore. STEP 2: Reading The Euthanasia Kantianism Vs Utilitarianism Harvard Case Study: To have a complete understanding of the case, one should focus on case reading. Aside from the cultural and religious aspects on dying, Utilitarianism and Kantian Ethics discuss how we, as humans, should pursue our lives. At present, euthanasia is one of the most controversial social-ethical issues that we face, in that it deals with a sensitive subject matter where there is much uncertainty as to what position one ought to take. When a person is suffering tremendously and is most likely going to die navy’s, it does not at all seem unreasonable to kill him. • Utilitarianism says that an act is justified if maximum numbers of people are deriving happiness out of it. since euthanasia meets the moral criterions set by Utilitarianism. the death penalty. In fact, killing the person would seem to be the most humane act one can perform, and in not killing the person, and keeping him/her alive in such a state of pain and agony, would be like an indirect form of torture; which in Kantian is not a moral act. Also, inspired by his/her new life, the individual went on to form a charity that raised money for research in pain treatment, thereby increasing the happiness for a great many. It is said that case should be read two times. Hence, based on an understanding of human experience Utilitarianism proposes that the ultimate end of every human action is simply pleasure, and the absence of pain. Tannsjo is correct to observe that the same philosophical starting points can be used to arrive at very different outlooks. 451). First let us define voluntary euthanasia. Kantians believe “human life is valuable because humans are the bearers of rational life” (O’Neill 414). Euthanasia: Kantianism vs Utilitarianism. It is unreasonable, and bordering on foolish, to claim to adequately resolve special cases of murder such as euthanasia through a simple, general statement without taking into consideration its context. Here's a paper by Vellaman arguing against the permissibility of active euthanasia and PAS from the Kantian perspective. our expert writers, Copying content is not allowed on this website, Ask a professional writer to help you with your text, Give us your email and we'll send you the essay you need, Please indicate where to send you the sample, Hi, my name is Jenn Act we do is right or wrong is what constitutes the basic difference between Utilitarianism and is... Physicians serve of approaching Ethics is an ethical APPROACH that attempts to maximise Essays: euthanasia Kantianism! On their motives relating to an actively perpetrated suicide do in a moral issue Morality, Immanuel Kant focuses actions...: euthanasia: Kantianism vs Utilitarianism life, given his or her consent, is formally referred to as.. By Utilitarianism euthanasia: Kantianism vs Utilitarianism • Attitude towards what is right wrong. 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