Nicholas Dixon, Boxing, Paternalism, and Legal Moralism, Social Theory and Practice, 27(2): 323-344 (2001). The co-chair of the NFL’s Health and Safety Advisory Committee has said that the committee thinks helmets are part of the culture and tradition and will not be outlawed in the foreseeable future. If option A will create more happiness (or less misery) overall than option â¦ Some people accuse the media (and others) of hysterically overhyping the dangers of tackle football to the brain. Limited government is a political system in which legalized force is restricted through delegated and enumerated powers, such as The United States Constitution and Bill of Rights. Companies also must endeavor to keep their promises and put ethics at least on par with profits.  Many researchers in the area recently published an article saying: Contrary to common perception, the clinical syndrome of CTE has not yet been fully defined.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle. How about the reverse—why do many people who believe football players should be free to decide what they do with their bodies take decidedly un-libertarian positions on issues such as abortion, marijuana legalization, and assisted suicide?  Daniel Goldberg, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis, Journal of Legal Medicine, 34: 157-191 (2013). Act utilitarianism makes the most ethical actions possible for the benefit of the people. Utilitarianism can be used in any business decision that seeks to maximize positive effects (especially morally, but also financially) and minimize negative ones. Are the answers different for NFL players, college players, high school players, and under-14 players? On an individual level, if you make morally correct decisions at work, then everyone's happiness will increase. Another study of 35 former NFL players over age 50 who had sustained multiple concussions during their careers found no significant association between the length of careers, the number of concussions, and their level of cognitive function later in life. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do. Concussion Suit, New York Times, April 22, 2015.  Patrick Findler, Should Kids Play (American) Football?, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(3): 443-462 (2015). 1685 Words7 Pages. Applying Utilitarianism in Business. Empirical research supports the notion that allowing children to engage in dangerous forms of play is key to their optimal development. If so, how would you go about guarding against it have a deleterious impact? Children between the ages of 9 and 14 make up the largest cohort of football players in the U.S.  Such proteins develop in tangles that slowly strangle neurons and, consequently, inhibit brain function.. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020); Alan Schwarz et al., N.F.L.’s Flawed Concussion Research and Ties to Tobacco Industry, New York Times, March 24, 2016. Examples of Utilitarian Ethics One example of utilitarianism in business is the practice of having tiered pricing for a product or service to different types of customers. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). 57 Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us?  Julie M. Stamm et al., Age of First Exposure to Football and Later-life Cognitive Impairment in Former NFL Players, Neurology, 84(11): 1114-1120 (2015). We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019.  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. One suggested solution to the concussion problem is to outlaw helmets on the theory that players will be forced to reduce headfirst collisions and other trauma-causing actions. They’re all in good shape.  Daniel Engber, Concussion Lies, Slate, Dec. 21, 2015, at https://slate.com/culture/2015/12/the-truth-about-will-smiths-concussion-and-bennet-omalu.html; Kevin Lomangino, Journalists Drop the Ball on Big Concussion/CTE Story, HEALTHNEWSREVIEW.ORG, Jan. 19, 2018, at https://www.healthnewsreview.org/2018/01/sports-desks-drop-the-ball-on-big-concussion-story/;  Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). 36 short illustrated videos explain behavioral ethics concepts and basic ethics principles.  Jeanne Marie Laskas, Concussion (2015). Discussion Questions on High Schools & Colleges, Discussion Questions on Youth Leagues (Under 14). b. Basic utilitarianism is the soft, act version. New Yorker writer Ingfei Chen observed that Fisher-Price had been required to recall a collapsible crib that was associated with 32 infant deaths. A 2016 study found no elevated risk of suicide in a population of players with at least five years in the league. The theory asserts that there are two types of utilitarian ethics practiced in the business world, "rule" utilitarianism and "act" utilitarianism. Despite their heightened susceptibility to concussions, youth football players rarely sustain concussions because they are lighter and collide with less force than older players. The more expensive upper-class seats help to ease the financial burden that the airline created by making room for economy-class seats. It is the only moral framework that can be used to justify military force or war.  Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Recurrent Concussion and Risk of Depression in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(6): 903-909 (2007). This yellow to reddish-brown translucent material has been used in a number of ways, including to make jewelry, in Egyptian burials, and in the healing arts. See Bennet I. Omalu et al, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in a National Football League Player, Neurosurgery, 57: 128-134 (2005);  Ann McKee et al., The Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Brain Pathology, 25: 350-364 (2015). We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. An Analysis of Youth Football Head Impact Data, Neurosurgery (Jan. 2020), available at https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz563. Reducing tackling in practices has reduced overall concussion numbers among high school players, even though the number of concussions in games has risen slightly. In business contexts, utilitarianism implies an obligation for businesses to do what they can to act in a way that maximizes happiness and minimizes suffering. After you identify your options for action, you ask who will benefit and who will be harmed by each. While some researchers and universities feel as though they should refrain from making such amber purchases, their failure to participate enables many private collectors to remove collections from the public or to charge researchers an exorbitant fee for access. So, utilitarianism provides a basis for criticizing business behaviours that cause harm to anyone at all.  Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us?  J.S. Utilitarianism is a tradition of ethical philosophy that is associated with Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, two late 18th- and 19th-century British philosophers, economists, and political thinkers. However, because we cannot predict the future, it’s difficult to know with certainty whether the consequences of our actions will be good or bad. It addresses the meaning of ethical terms such as right, duty, obligation, justification, morality, responsibility. This would arguably produce the greatest good for the greatest number.  Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014; Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). Chen noted that “there is no such thing as an acceptably risky crib,” but contrasted it with sports like football where “hazards are part of their attraction.” She asked: “How much risk is too much?”. In act utilitarianism any action is permissible given that it increases pleasure for the greatest number of people and a successful business does exactly this. Mill's approach is to argue that the pleasures of the intellect are intrinsically superior to physical pleasures.  Michael L. Alosco et al., Repetitive Head Impact Exposure and Later-Life Plasma Total Tau in Former National Football League Players, Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring, 7: 33-40 (2017).  Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? Ramogi Huma, executive director of the National College Players Association, argued that schools should be required to fully inform [college] players about the risks of playing football now, including information about their susceptibilities to underlying health conditions. Utilitarianism in the workplace focuses on ethics, democracy, rights and responsibilities within the business environment. Our society allows people to voluntarily choose to undertake many risky professions, including coal miners, fire jumpers, soldiers, underwater oil rig welders, and others. A limitation of utilitarianism is that it tends to create a black-and-white construct of morality. In liberal democracies throughout the centuries, the progenitors of utilitarianism spawned variants and extensions of its core principles. They’re all 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22-year-olds. In general terms, itâs easy to understand the idea that we should all act to increase the general welfare. Do you agree? Myanmar amber is plentiful, high quality and contains inclusions within the resin. For example, assume a hospital has four people whose lives depend upon receiving organ transplants: a heart, lungs, a kidney, and a liver. It is a form of consequentialism. Over time more evidence has indicated that even mild concussions suffered by high school football players can cause serious consequences. The Kachin Independence Army, which includes ethnic minorities who live in the northern Kachin and surrounding regions of Myanmar, has been in armed conflict with the Myanmar government for the restoration of minority ethnic groups’ rights. The term may also refer to pleasure or satisfaction that people derive from being somewhere. Search for: Utilitarianism What is utilitarianism?  Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? If the outcome leads to the greatest good (or the least harm) for the greatest number of people, then it is assumed the end justifies the means. In this Wireless Philosophy video, Julia Markovits (Cornell University) gives an introduction to the moral theory of utilitarianism. At work, you display utilitarianism when you take actions to ensure that the office is a positive environment for your co-workers to be in, and then make it so for yourself. Utilitarianism is a teleological ethical theory based on the idea that an action is moral if it causes the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number. 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from Giving Voice to Values by Mary Gentile.  Robert F. Heary et al., Is Youth Football Safe? If you took a deontological approach, what would your reasoning look like?  Everett J. Lehman et al., Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(10): 2486-2491 (2016). He could also gain benefits from Michael. When directed toward making social, economic, or political decisions, a utilitarian philosophy would aim for the betterment of society as a whole. In today's Western democracies, policymakers are generally proponents of free markets and some base level of government interference in the private lives of citizens so as to assure safety and security. Again, these studies are broken down by league level: Studies such as these provide ammunition for those who defend organized football as an institution.  Rachel Grashow et al., Association of Concussion Symptoms with Testosterone levels and Erectile Dysfunction in Former Professional US-Style Football Players, JAMA Neurology, 2019: DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.2664. Business Law and Ethics Case Study. The action is described as the right one when it is beneficial for most people and has positive consequences. CEO may have his bonus taken away/salary cut during recession In the wake of the recent pandemic, Oklahoma State head football coach Mike Gundy said “In my opinion, if we have to bring our players back, test them.  Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. Comments (0) A 2019 study of the brains of 223 football players with CTE and 43 players without CTE found that for each additional 2.6 years of play, the risk of developing CTE doubled. See also Michael Cunningham, Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 22, 2020. It is the only moral framework that can be used to justify military force or war. Act utilitarianism often demonstrates the concept that “the end justifies the means”—or it's worth it. Dr. Omalu identified abnormal clumps of the protein tau in Webster’s brain, which he believed to be evidence of CTE. Other studies found that NFL players who suffered concussions were more likely to later be diagnosed with depression. Some argue against paternalism and in favor of individual choice, believing that adults (at least) should be able to choose to engage in boxing (and presumably to play football) despite its potentially adverse consequences for brain health. Many people who are in favor of abolishing football or significantly reforming the way it is played are pro-choice when it comes to abortion, minor drug use, and assisted suicide. Part of the reason is that “[m]ost of the time when a player has a concussion, standard medical imaging techniques do not show damage.” No “gold standard” for diagnosing concussions currently exists. For many years this mining area has been protected by the Kachin Independence Army.  Bryan R. Cobb et al., Head Impact Exposure in Youth Football: Elementary School Ages 9-12 Years and the Effect of Practice Structure, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 41: 2463-2473 (2013). Amber is a resin material that is formed from fossilized conifer tree sap during years of constant pressure and heat. The main idea of utilitarian ethics is: secure the greatest good for the greatest number. A study of former high school and college football players found that RHI exposure predicted later-life apathy, depression, executive dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Being Your Best Self, Part 1: Moral Awareness, Being Your Best Self, Part 2: Moral Decision Making, Being Your Best Self, Part 3: Moral Intent, Being Your Best Self, Part 4: Moral Action, Ethical Leadership, Part 1: Perilous at the Top, Ethical Leadership, Part 2: Best Practices, Curbing Corruption: GlaxoSmithKline in China. Most importantly, other studies seem to indicate that concussions may be more benign. 5. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure.". However, the science in this area is truly not settled. Utilitarianism in business can lead to a bottom-line mentality in which decisions are based on achieving the greatest good for the organization as it pertains to the greatest number of stakeholders, including shareholders and all others affected by the actions of the organization The outcome is the determining factor, not the intent of the actors or whether people are treated humanely. In the workplace, though, utilitarian ethics are difficult to achieve. Acceptability. If subconcussive blows are the cause of C.T.E., how much impact is too much? Tom would do this because he is promoting his well being above everyone elseâs (QUT, 2011). How might the self-serving bias impact team physicians’ and trainers’ judgments and actions? This would arguably produce the greatest good for the greatest number.  Kathleen Bachynski, Youth Football is a Moral Abdication, The Atlantic, Feb. 1, 2020. A Defense of a utilitarian approach to business ethics, written for Business Ethics: A Philosophical Approach Edited by Werhane and Donaldson.  Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014. This statistic is up 61% from 2002-2007, perhaps reflecting an improvement of awareness and reporting. If the outcome leads to the greatest good (or the least harm) for the greatest number of people, then it is assumed the end justifies the means. The author of this theory suggests that firm must be valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable and perfectly non sustainable.  Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concusions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neurologist David Kaufman). So, we just need to kind of put it in context.”. â¢ Analysis of the language, concepts and methods of resoning in ethics. As told in the movies, a significant scientific breakthrough occurred in 2002 when an African-American neuropathologist in Pittsburgh named Bennet Omalu (played by Will Smith in the 2015 movie “Concussion”) performed an autopsy on Hall of Fame center Mike Webster. Utilitarianism would say that an action is right if it results in the happiness of the greatest number of people in a society or a group. The word total is important here: if you act ethically according to utilitarianism, youâre not maximizing yourhappiness, but the total happiness of the whole human race. Act utilitarianism makes the most ethical actions possible for the benefit of the people. Football rules intentionally create high speed collisions between human beings, making such injuries inevitable and the sport controversial. 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